Understanding each type of service will save headaches and money.
There are several kinds of agencies and facilities to consider when choosing the best options for a loved one. It’s helpful to understand what style of care works best for families at different stages of the caregiving journey.
This excerpt from my FREE REPORT explains the various services, facility types and payment options.
- Companion Agencies provide unskilled workers for duties like light housekeeping, grocery shopping, and transportation for the elderly individual. Companions do not give hands-on care. Typically, the agency will charge $16-20/hour.
- Personal Care Agencies provide Certified Home Health Aides (CHHAs), but also some Companions. CHHAs should be certified by the state, bonded, and have criminal background checks. These aides are qualified to perform any hands-on care that involves such activities as bathing, washing, assisting with dressing and stair climbing. They cannot provide wound care, medication or any treatments. The care agencies charge $4-5 more than Companions per hour for this level of care.
- Licensed Nursing Services have Licensed Professional Registered Nurses (RNs) and Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs). These nurses can dispense medications, perform wound dressings and treatments, and can complete physical assessments. These licensed agencies also have CHHAs who work under the supervision of licensed nurses. Licensed agencies may be covered under commercial health insurance, workman’s compensation, auto injury protection, or paid for by Medicaid.
- Medicare Certified Agencies are certified to care for Medicare patients, but usually only after a hospital discharge. Based on an assessment and the doctor’s instructions, Medicare pays the agency a set fee for all the care needs the patient requires. Such an agency may provide a CHHA, the services of a social worker, a physical therapist, an occupational therapist and/or a speech therapist. Social workers and other specialty therapy providers may also be consulted.
- Nursing Registries function as employment agencies. The patient’s family hires the caretaker directly and pays the agency an additional fee per hour. Generally these agencies only use companions or home health aides, but in some cases may offer skilled nursing. The family must be cautious because they are responsible for any injury that may occur while the nurses are providing a service and any theft or losses that may occur. The registry does not take responsibility for those occurrences. The family must also take into account their own liability for employment taxes.
- Private Hire Many people seek to save money by hiring a companion or nurse privately but assume the risk of theft or losses when the private hire is unsupervised and without a background check.
- Adult Day Care services are usually offered between the hours of 8 AM and 4 PM, for about $80/day plus transportation. This service may be covered by Medicaid or by the county, if the person qualifies financially. Adult Day Care provides a light breakfast, a meal at lunch, and dispenses medication. There are activities for residents, transportation for doctor’s visits during the day, and the supervision of a Registered Nurse while at the facility. A family can choose to have the member attend as often as desirable. These services are useful when loved ones are not safe alone at home but the family returns in the evening to care for them. Such situations give family some respite and assist in the loved one’s socialization.
- Program for All Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is designed to keep chronically ill individuals living at home in their communities. This program may be covered by Medicare and/or Medicaid, or a sliding scale payment if the loved one’s income and assets are too high to qualify for entitlements. PACE programs provide primary physician care, adult day care, social work services, physical and occupational therapy services and in-home care when appropriate.
- Independent Living Communities are apartments that may be sponsored by a town or a non-profit organization to pay the rent for low-income individuals. Such communities provide apartments with activities that would be of interest to seniors. These communities often contract with Home Healthcare Agencies to provide services as needed for their residents and to be paid for by the resident.
- Free Standing Assisted Living Communities are appropriate for people that require minimum to moderate assistance for one or more activities of daily living. The price includes room and board, access to the services of a visiting primary care provider, social activities, housekeeping and laundry, while the resident maintains his own apartment with his own furniture. Such care is paid for privately; it is not covered under Medicare and rarely is covered by Medicaid.
- Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC) These organizations have independent living, assisted living, and skilled nursing care all on the same campus. They generally require a large deposit to join the community and become a permanent resident. Generally the CCRC prefers that the resident join prior to requiring an intense level of care. Such care is paid for privately, but the community may accept Medicaid if the resident outlives his funds.
- Skilled Nursing Facilities (Nursing Home Care) provide care for patients that require moderate, maximal, or total assistance with two or more activities of daily living. The better facilities generally expect two years of privately paid funds, and most will accept Medicaid once the private pay assets are exhausted.
- Sub-Acute Care is paid for by Medicare after a qualified three-day hospital stay. While Medicaid may pay for up to one hundred days in a Skilled Nursing Facility, most patients stay two to three weeks. To qualify, the person needs to engage in one to three hours of rehabilitation per day, and will need to continue to show progress in order to qualify for continued stay.
- Acute Rehabilitation Hospitals specialize in rehabilitation of complex conditions or injuries after an acute hospital stay. A patient’s stay must be pre-approved by the insurance carrier, and the patient needs to be engaged in three to five hours of rehabilitation a day.
- Long Term Acute Care (LTAC) are specialty hospitals for patients that do not require the services of an Acute Care Hospital in terms of diagnostic or surgical procedures, but do need skilled nurses for complex wound care, ventilator care, and rehabilitation beyond which can be provided in a Sub-Acute setting. This care is generally covered under Medicare and commercial insurance on a pre-approval basis.
- Hospitals are differentiated between community hospitals and tertiary care centers. Community hospitals care for patients with routine and predictable conditions and are not involved in complex surgical or diagnostic procedures. University affiliated and specialty hospitals that receive many patients from other hospitals specialize in complex care such as oncology, orthopedics and neurosurgery.
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